28 November 2006

Fragmentación forestal erosiona biodiversidad en el Amazonas

eeuu-naturaleza 28-11-2006

Terra Actualidad - EFE

La fragmentación forestal es una amenaza mayor de lo que se creía para la biodiversidad en la cuenca del Amazonas, revela un estudio divulgado hoy por la revista 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences'.

Esa fragmentación se produce como resultado de las actividades madereras, ganaderas e industriales en una zona que contiene las mayores comunidades forestales del planeta.

Según el estudio, se calcula que en una superficie que cubre apenas el área de dos canchas de fútbol conviven hasta 300 especies de árboles diferentes.

La Cuenca del Amazonas, ocupada por el río y sus tributarios, ocupa una superficie de unos siete millones de kilómetros cuadrados

La investigación incluyó el análisis de la suerte corrida por casi 32.000 árboles amazónicos desde 1980, en lo que se considera como el estudio experimental más grande y prolongado realizado hasta ahora sobre la fragmentación del hábitat amazónico.

Según William Laurance, del Instituto Smithsonian de Investigación Tropical en Panamá, uno de los descubrimientos de la investigación fue la notable velocidad con la que las comunidades de árboles cambian como consecuencia de la fragmentación.

'Los árboles de las selvas húmedas pueden vivir siglos, y hasta milenios. Por ello es que ninguno de nosotros esperaba algo tan rápido. En solo dos décadas -que es un segundo en la vida de un árbol milenario- el ecosistema ha sufrido una grave degradación', manifestó Laurance.

Según los científicos, el factor principal de esa degradación son los cambios ecológicos que ocurren en los márgenes de las fragmentaciones forestales.

'Cuando se fragmenta el bosque, los vientos cálidos de las llanuras adyacentes matan muchos árboles', indicó Henrique Nascimento, miembro del Instituto Nacional para la Investigación Amazónica de Brasil.

Según el científico brasileño, el estudio determinó que la fragmentación produce una reestructuración completa de las comunidades de árboles.

'Los más vulnerables son los que sobreviven bajo las copas y que necesitan de animales como pájaros o murciélagos para esparcir sus semillas o el polen', agregó.

Para los científicos el problema también puede ser un factor en el cambio climático por cuanto los árboles más pequeños en una zona fragmentada tienen menos biomasa y, por lo tanto, menos carbono que las selvas originales.

El carbono de los árboles muertos es reconvertido por los insectos en dióxido de carbono, el más importante de los gases invernadero.

'La fragmentación está afectando las selvas de muchas maneras.

Estos cambios son rápidos y cuando se altera completamente algo tan básico como los árboles, las especies que viven en la selva también ser verán afectadas', indicó Laurance.

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